Revolutions in Biotechnology, Mass Communications, and Computers (1976-2001)
Sections:
  1. President Ford Memorandum on Recombinant DNA
  2. Reagan's Agenda for the Future
  3. Regulation of Biotechnology 1986
  4. Science and Technology Policy 1993
  5. National Biomedical Research Day
  6. Cloning Legislation 1997
  7. Executive Order 13145
  8. Executive Order 13237
  9. Revolutions in Communication
  10. "The Great Equilizer"
  11. Communications Revolutions Embodied in the Computer Revolution
President Ford Memorandum on Recombinant DNATop
Historical Context
In 1976 the National Institute of Health set guidelines for genetic research. These guidelines were intended to curtail any ethical questions that may arise from the current research.

Attached Document
Included in this section is President Ford's Memorandum on Recombinant DNA Experiments.

Questions to consider:
1. How do you think the guidelines will affect research?
2. In the future how will these guidelines need to be changed?
     Gerald Ford Memorandum Recombinant DNA Experiments.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/760801.htm
Reagan's Agenda for the FutureTop
Historical Context
On February 6, 1986, President Ronald Reagan outlined what he saw as the “Agenda for America’s Future.” This agenda included a variety of things ranging from the economy to national defense. At the heart of his agenda was advancing the technological era. He stressed the importance of his administration supporting research in biotechnology and space.

Attached Document
Regan's Message to Congress on America's Agenda for the Future is included in this section.

Questions to consider:
1. At this time we didn’t know as much about the affects biotechnology would have on everyday life. If we had know how it would affect our life, do you think Reagan’s agenda would have been different?
2. Have we lived up to Reagan’s agenda?
     Reagan Message to Congress on Americas Agenda for the Future.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=36768&st=biotechnology&st1=
Regulation of Biotechnology 1986Top
Historical Context
The Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology outlines the basic policies and procedures for the agencies that have jurisdiction over the industry.

Attached Documents
Included here is the Coordinated Framework for Biotechnology Regulation.

Questions to consider:
1. How will this framework for regulation differ from the one publised in 1984?
2. Since this regulation has been put in place has anything else been established that will work better?
     Coordinated Framework for Biotehnology Regulation.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1986/62086a.htm
Science and Technology Policy 1993Top
Historical Context
In this letter to Congress, President Bush outlines his goals for Research and Development (R&D). The roles the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology will play in policy development and implementation are explained. He also touches on the current strength of the U.S. science and technology field and his concerns for the future.

Attached Document
President Bush's letter to the leaders of Congress regarding Science and Technology is included in this section.

Questions to consider:
1. What concern does President Bush express that will have the most affect on the science and technology field?
2. Has the U.S. held onto the role as the world leader in the science and technology field?
     Letter to Congressional Leaders on Science and Technology Policy.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version of Letter was found on the web at http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/papers/1993/93011504.html
National Biomedical Research DayTop
Historical Context
In 1993, Congress designated October 21 as Biomedical Research day. This day is dedicated to celebrating the human health benefits that have come from biomedical research in both the regular and disease study fields. It is also the hope of the government that this day will raise awareness and encourage future research and advancements.

Attached Document
Included here is the Congressional Proclamation of Biomedical Research Day.

Questions to consider:
1. Did you know that there was a national Biomedical Research Day?
2. If you did know about the day, how has it affected what you know about the field?
3. If you did not know about the day, what is your awareness of the field?
     Biomedical Research Day Proclamation.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://clinton6.nara.gov/1993/10/1993-10-21-national-biomedical-research-day.html
Cloning Legislation 1997Top
Historical Context
In 1997, during the Clinton Administration, legislation prohibiting human cloning was announced. This legislation came from the recommendations made by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. They wanted to ensure that the wording of the legislation prohibited human cloning but allowed for biomedical and argricultural uses. The legislation also states that no federal funding will be used for human cloning.

Attached Documents
Clinton's comments on the cloning legislation and his letter to Congress regarding cloning legislation.

Questions to consider:
1. What would biotechnology be like today if the legislation called for a complete ban on cloning?
2. Do you feel it is beneficial for the President to have advisory committees on the eithic of biotechnology? If so, why? If not, why?
     Clinton on Cloning Legislation.rtf  
     Cloning Prohibiiton Act Fact Sheet.rtf  
     Clinton Letter to Congress Regarding Cloning Legislation.rtf  
Citations:
"Cloning Legislation": http://clinton3.nara.gov/New/Remarks/Mon/19970609-15472.html
"Fact Sheet": http://clinton3.nara.gov/New/Remarks/Mon/19970609-16602.html
Clinton Letter: http://clinton3.nara.gov/New/Remarks/Mon/19970609-15987.html
Executive Order 13145Top
Historical Context
Executive Order 13145 was signed into law by President Clinton on February 8, 2000. The amount of knowledge about the human genome coming out of the biotechnology revolution gave way to another form of discrimination. Federal employers, who had access to human genetic information, were using it to make employment decisions. This order is intended to prohibit discrimination in Federal Employment based on genetic informaion.

Attached Document
Included here is the Executive Order 13145.

Questions to consider:
1. As more advancements in biotechnology are made, how will this order have to be changed to keep up?
2. Do you think it will ever be possible for private employers to access to genetic information? If so, how will that affect employment practices?
     EO 13145.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.eeoc.gov/abouteeoc/35th/thelaw/13145.html
Executive Order 13237Top
Historical Context
Executive Order 13237 created the President's Council on Bioethics. This council was created specifically to advise the President on the issues, mainly ethical, that could arise out of biomedical research.

Attached Document
Included here is the Executive Order 13237.

Questions to consider:
1. What are the functions of the council’s mission?
2. How are member of this council chosen? What kind of background do you think members of this council should have?
     EO13237.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.bioethics.gov/about/executive.html
Revolutions in CommunicationTop
Historical Context
In 1995 Reed Hunt, Chaiman of the FCC, delivered a speech titled "The Future is Here Now - Bee There!" In this speech he highlighted how the communications revolution began with the shift in telecommunications, from wired to cellular, and continues on through PC use. He also talks about how the communications revolution will affect the economy and who it will affect most.

Attached Document
Included here is Reed E. Hunt's speech on revolution in communication.

Questions to consider:
1. In 1995 when this speech was delivered, the income gap was large and predicted to become larger as the communications revolution progressed. Has this theory held true and how?
2. What does Mr. Hunt suggest to decrease the income gap?
     Speech by Reed E Hunt.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.fcc.gov/Speeches/Hundt/spreh532.txt
"The Great Equilizer"Top
Historical Context
In 2000 William Kennard, Chairman of the FCC, delivered a speech titled “The Great Equalizer.” The emphasis of his speech is the third revolution, the information revolution. The information revolution as outlined by Mr. Kennard includes the formation of a network of networks. This network of networks would provide people with a myriad of ways to obtain information, including the internet. “The Great Equalizer” according to Kennard is the internet. The internet has allowed for greater economic growth in both the private and public sectors.

Attached Documents
Included here is William Kennard's speech on internet.

Questions to consider:
1. How has the internet changed your life?
2. How has the internet changed the way information can be accessed?
3. Where do you think we would today without the internet?
     The Great Equalizer by William Kennard.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.fcc.gov/Speeches/Kennard/2000/spwek014.html
Communications Revolutions Embodied in the Computer RevolutionTop
Historical Context
What happened when the communications revolution merged with the computer revolution? Michael Powell addresses this question in his speech delivered May 24, 2001, to the British American Inc. Mr. Powell discussed government regulation policy surrounding communications industries; he explains how the technology revolution is the communication revolution, and how this revolution is embodied in the computer revolution.

Attached Document
Michael Powell's address is included here.

Questions to consider:
1. According to Mr. Powell how will this revolution progress?
2. What kind of government regulation is necessary according to Mr. Powell?
     Michael Powell FCC Chairman Address.rtf  
Citations:
Full Version: http://www.fcc.gov/Speeches/Powell/2001/spmkp107.txt
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